The frameworks make the life of the software developers much easier by offering various solutions for developing applications and services. They automate the implementation of standard solutions, saving tones of time. Thanks to this, the developer is capable of focusing on the application creation to a greater extent than on routine tasks where no creative thinking is needed only time wasting.
There are dozens of convenient frameworks suitable to work with Python code. As usual, there are some fans of pioneering frameworks, and there are fans of old ones like Django, which was created in July of 2005 and still strives to improve and surprise web developers with each new release.
Django is a free open-source full-stack high-level framework. It is a well-organized framework, which simplifies the whole development of large and complicated applications with its range of popular features. It allows coders to add most of the standard functions as a single package instead of searching for individual libraries. Among them are such popular ones as authentication, URL routing, data scheme migration, etc.
Django uses Object Relational Mapping (ORM) programming technique for converting information between incompatible types of systems and to map objects to database tables. The same code works with different databases, so switching from one database to another becomes a simple task. The main databases with which Django works are PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle.
Django is the web application created in Python and dedicated serving as its integrated development environment (IDE). One of the basic principles of this framework is DRY – meaning Don’t Repeat Yourself. Django web systems are built of one or more applications that are recommended to be made alienable and connectable. This is one of the most noticeable architectural differences of this framework compared to some others like Ruby on Rails.
Initially, Django was designed to run under Apache, along with the mod_python module equipped with PostgreSQL as a database. Currently, in addition to PostgreSQL, Django can work with other database management systems (DBMSs) like SQLite, MySQL (MariaDB), Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Firebird, SQL Anywhere and Oracle. For the work with the Django’s database, it uses its own ORM, in which the data model is described by the Python classes, and the database scheme is generated from it. In addition to the features built into the framework core, there are packages that extend Django’s capabilities.
Django’s architecture is similar to Model-View-Controller (MVC). The controller of the classical MVC model corresponds approximately to the level that is called View in Django, and the presentation logic of the View is implemented in Django by the Templates level. Because of this, the layered architecture of Django is often referred to as Model-Template-View (MTV).
In its early times, Django was developed to provide more convenient work with news resources, which seriously influenced the framework architecture. The framework provides a number of tools that help in rapid informational websites development. Developers no more deed to create controllers and pages for the administrative part of the website, as Django possesses the built-in content management application that can be included in any website constructed on Django and which can manage several websites at once on one server. The administrative application allows one to create, modify, and delete any of the website content objects logging all actions performed. The application also provides an interface for managing the rights of users and groups.
Django has developed quite a lot of ready-to-use solutions distributed under a free license, including systems for managing online stores, universal content management systems, as well as more focused projects oriented on Python web development.